With the regulation of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the European Commission is addressing one of the central issues of our time. However, a number of core legal questions are still unresolved. Against this background, the article in a first step lays regulatory foundations by examining the possible scope of a future AI regulation, and by discussing legal strategies for implementing a risk-based approach.
In this respect, I suggest an adaptation of the Lamfalussy procedure, known from capital markets law, which would combine horizontal and vertical elements of regulation at several levels. This should include, at Level 1, principles for AI development and application, as well as sector-specific regulation, safe harbors and guidelines at Levels 2-4. In this way, legal flexibility for covering novel technological developments can be effectively combined with a sufficient amount of legal certainty for companies and AI developers.
In a second step, the article implements this framework by addressing key specific issues of AI regulation at the EU level, such as: documentation and access requirements; a regulatory framework for training data; a revision of product liability and safety law; strengthened enforcement; and a right to a data-free option.
Hacker, Philipp, AI Regulation in Europe (May 7, 2020).
Download the full paper from the SSRN
A scenario in which the UK leaves the EU without agreement (a ‘no deal’ scenario) remains unlikely given the mutual interests of the UK and the EU in securing a negotiated outcome.
Negotiations are progressing well and both we and the EU continue to work hard to seek a positive deal. However, it’s our duty as a responsible government to prepare for all eventualities, including ‘no deal’, until we can be certain of the outcome of those negotiations.
For two years, the government has been implementing a significant programme of work to ensure the UK will be ready from day 1 in all scenarios, including a potential ‘no deal’ outcome in March 2019.
It has always been the case that as we get nearer to March 2019, preparations for a no deal scenario would have to be accelerated. Such an acceleration does not reflect an increased likelihood of a ‘no deal’ outcome. Rather it is about ensuring our plans are in place in the unlikely scenario that they need to be relied upon.
This series of technical notices sets out information to allow businesses and citizens to understand what they would need to do in a ‘no deal’ scenario, so they can make informed plans and preparations.
This guidance is part of that series.
Also included is an overarching framing notice explaining the government’s overarching approach to preparing the UK for this outcome in order to minimise disruption and ensure a smooth and orderly exit in all scenarios.
We are working with the devolved administrations on technical notices and we will continue to do so as plans develop.
Full UK Government Guidance Note Here
Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) Response
Bar Standards Board (BSB) Response
The EU Regular Economic Report (RER) is a periodic publication of the World Bank Group and covers economic developments and prospects, as well as economic policies in the European Union.
The report focuses on four regional sub-groups that share broad economic similarities (see map): Central Europe comprises Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia; Northern Europe comprises Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden; Southern Europe comprises Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain; and Western Europe comprises Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report covers the European Union, and also provides additional information on European countries that have a stronger operational engagement with the World Bank Group, in particular, Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland and Romania. The focus note of this RER covers “Service Sector Reform in the EU”.
See full report: EU RER 3 Oct16 v5